- Semicentralised water supply and treatment: options for the dynamic curban area of Hanoi, Vietnam
- Hanoi,the capital of Vietnam, is experiencing rapid urbanisation coupled with high econ- Omic growth rates.This situation is both a challenge and an opportunity for the upgrading of existing technical in frastructures.Regarding wastewater treatment,the situation in Hanoi today is characterised by a lack of wastewater treatment plants, processing only as mall fraction of the accumulating wastewater. Prevalent means of sanitation are septic tanks installed under buildings for the collection of domestic wastewaters, with overfowing liquids draining into the groundwater in an uncontrolled manner. This decentralised means of sanitation is there fore currently not able to clean domestic wastewaters in an effective way.This paper explores circumstances under which a semi-centralised approach can offer a sustainable solution to cope with these challenges in Hanoi.The approach has been designed to meet the challenges of fast growing urban areas around the world.
Source:Source:Anh Viet Nguyen - IESE